A discovery set to revolutionise the world!

 

Energy supplied from 100% renewable energy may still be a reality thanks to a recent invention.

A number of ground-breaking inventions, including the light bulb, the computer and the automobile, have been conceived in people's garages, and the invention of a new form of energy storage with the potential to solve the world's energy problems in the most environmentally-friendly way is also a 'product of the garage'.

 

The production of clean, CO2-neutral, hydrogen-based energy has long been beset by problems including high costs and non-environmentally friendly or inefficient production methods, which not only require hydrogen storage measures, but also transportation and stringent safety precautions.

 

After many years of research, we have now succeeded in developing an innovative method of producing large quantities of hydrogen at low cost and CO2-neutral on the basis of electrochemistry. This development presents a viable, clean and non-radiative alternative to nuclear energy.

 

Redox material as energy storage:

 

Redox material, rich in energy, accumulates as a by-product of industrial processes, such as the manufacture of solar cells. The energy stored in redox material can now be used to produce hydrogen, which in turn can be used in a variety of processes, such as the manufacture of photovoltaics or directly in the generation of heat and electricity.

 

State of development:

 

In an initial prototype, we were able to operate the process in a stable manner. In an enhanced prototype (H-reactor), we were able to run a continuous computer-operated process. The prototypes have shown that the process produces virtually no waste products

 

A further two prototypes currently exist, which in terms of their construction indicate a high degree of suitability for series production. These reactors are suitable for low-consumption users, such as single-family households.

They are capable of producing  gas volumes of between 1 and 50 litres per minute, and offer scalability by a factor of 20 with minimal effort. Scaling by a factor of 1000, with corresponding dimensions, is also possible. 

 

A leading German university specialising in the field of hydrogen has succeeded in producing approx. 900 litres of pure hydrogen with an electrical power of 300 W. The requisite energy was provided by redox material acting as a catalyst. The reactor tubes had a height of approx. 150 cm and an outer diameter of approx. 40 cm. The hydrogen filter had a height of approx. 2 m.

 

KugelH Reaktor

  

H-reactor dome (predecessor model)                                             H-reactor cylinder (current version)                                          

The dome has a diameter of 50 cm                                               Hydrogen reactor and hydrogen filter

 

 

Advantages of the invention:

 

There is no longer a need for storage, as hydrogen can be produced whenever it is needed. This also dispenses with the need for hydrogen transportation. For conventional hydrogen transportation by road, pipeline or tanker, hydrogen must first be compressed or liquefied, which results in higher energy consumption.

 

Lower provision prices and production costs mean that conventional sources of energy can be replaced. Storage density is twenty times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries, and the storage duration is almost unlimited, with no storage loss.

 

A self-sustaining supply of energy based on renewable energy is almost entirely achievable, with no consequential negative impact on reliability or availability.

 

With independence of energy prices and reduced risk potential, planning and cost security are improved thanks to the abundance of all of the materials used in production. This technology also facilitates easy, cost-efficient implementation of decentralised energy production with low investment.

 

The process results in no release of CO2 and is entirely environmentally-friendly.

 

The consumption of natural resources is reduced (existing hydrogen plants typically suffer from their reliance on fossil fuels, which depending on the processes used, can result in higher CO2 emissions than if these sources are used directly).

 

The environmental harm caused by CO2 can be reduced through the addition of hydrogen to energy sources (methane or natural gas). With the large number of coal-fired power plants in China alone, industry is looking at a project worth billions.

 

The reforming of hydrogen into methane gas allows CO2 to be bonded and thus existing engine technology can continue to be used. Efficiency will continue to improve as new engine concepts are developed.

 

Billion-euro investments in high-voltage networks are no longer needed as energy losses occurring between the power plant and the customer (which can be as high as 80%) are ruled out in their entirety.

 

A brief description of the H-reactor process and comparison with conventional methods:

 

Hydrogen and oxygen can be separated in a number of ways, although the most well-known method is through electrolysis. Chemical release processes can also be used. However, at 2,500°C, water breaks down spontaneously, although this would not be feasible as core meltdown begins to occur at 2,850°C. The amount of energy required is also high.

 

One way around this is the use of redox materials, which currently allow hydrogen to be released at 800°C. When compared to 2,500°C, this is clearly a step in the right direction, although 800°C is still a fairly high temperature. The H-reactor process developed by our partners allows oxidation to occur at only 60°C, making the entire process much more straightforward and enhancing its attractiveness from an environmental perspective. Functional prototypes for this process already exist.It is therefore possible to prove that the process works.

 

It would now makes sense to re-use the redox material repeatedly by employing a recycling process. The current state of the art allows this to be accomplished easily at high temperatures, namely at 1,400°C. Trials are currently underway to determine whether or not this can be accomplished at 1,200°C through the addition of 'dopants'.

 

Indications are that renewed use of the H-reactor could allow the recycling process to be accomplished at temperatures below 60°C. This process is still in the realisation phase, and we expect an initial prototype for a redox recycling plant to be available in 2016.

 

So, hydrogen can be released at just 60°C in the H-reactor through the addition of redox materials.

 

The recycling process for redox materials is feasible. Work on a significantly improved version is currently underway. Use of the H-reactor for the recycling process appears both expedient and promising.

 

The heat required can be produced entirely using renewable energy, enabling wholly environmentally-friendly and CO2-netural production of hydrogen. The attractiveness of this innovative technology is also enhanced by the fact that plants can be produced far more cost-efficiently than electrolytic cells,

since there is no need for rare earths or expensive materials.

 

Brief summary comparison of chemical production of hydrogen and the H-reactor method.

 

 

 

 

H2 release:

 

Conventional: H2O to H2 and breakdown of O2 through addition of redox material at approx. 800°C

H-reactor:       H2O to H2 and breakdown of O2 through addition of redox material at approx. 60°C

(Prototype available, evidence can be produced).

 

Both methods result in a reaction between the oxygen and the redox material.

 

Recycling for the recovery of redox material:

 

Conventional:  (redox) O2 is broken down at 1,400°C; oxygen is extracted

Experimental:  (redox) O2 is broken down at 1,200°C; oxygen is extracted

Through the use of dopants, it is hoped that the temperature at which O2 breaks down can be reduced.

H-reactor:       (redox) O2 is broken down at 60°C; oxygen is recombined with redox

(Still experimental).

 

Vision and the future!

 

One of the most significant problems we face today is how to store energy. The H-reactor developed by our partners could be an important step in resolving this issue. The secret lies in the use of redox material.

 

As we have already explained, redox material is used to release hydrogen from water at temperatures lower than 2,500°C. The H-reactor method allows this to happen at just 60°C. As such, redox material is a viable source of energy. The recycling process for redox material requires energy to make the material available again. The energy storage density of redox material is twenty times higher than that of the best battery currently available, with more than 8,000 kWh of energy stored in 1 m³ of redox material. Furthermore, with redox material, there is no hazard potential.

 

Energy produced by wind and solar farms could be used in the production of redox materials. A second step would see the redox material used to produce hydrogen, which can then be converted to other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity.

 

Production can be controlled, dispensing with the need for costly storage of the hydrogen – hydrogen is produced only when it is needed.

 

Shipping the redox material by sea or by road is also possible, with the stored energy preserved indefinitely through chemical bonding. All of this means that redox material is a viable future replacement for natural gas and crude oil.

 

Welcome to the future!

 

Schematic representation of future energy storage and the use of redox material for the recovery of hydrogen:

 

 

 

Brief summary of the H-reactor method

 

Function:

 

Energy stored in silicon can be converted to nano silicon dioxide through the bonding of

the oxygen present in the water. Hydrogen remains, which can then be used in

energy or chemical processes. Our method produces 100% pure hydrogen.

 

Materials required:

 

Water, silicon, electrolyte, dopant

 

Product usability of:

 

Hydrogen (yield of € 0.12 per m³)

Nano silicon dioxide (yield of € 1.50 per kg)

 

Example calculation for industrial-scale plant:

 

Setting:

 

Annual production volume of hydrogen: 21,970,082 kWh calorific value

Annual production volume of nano silicon dioxide: 7,776,000 kg

Investment in plant: € 11,400,000 excluding site/property

 

Statement of earnings:

 

Revenue:

Revenue from sales of silicon dioxide:                

 11,640,000

Revenue from production of hydrogen:                        

 878,000 

Costs

Purchase of materials, silicon                                                              

 3,888,000

Purchase of materials, electrolyte                                              

 720,000

Depreciation (10 years)  

€ 1,140,000 per year

Maintenance costs (10% per year (incl. pers costs)

€ 1,140,000 per year

Electricity costs

€ 34,560

The costs of dotants can be disregarded.

 

Profit situation:

 

Total revenue would be

 € 12,518,000 per year

Total costs would be

  € 6,922,560 per year

The costs of buildings and land have not been taken into account.

 

Conclusion:

 

- An investment in a plant of this nature would pay for itself and become profitable within the first three years.

- There is both political and environmental interest in hydrogen as a source of energy.

- Nano silicon dioxide is a highly sought-after material in industry and construction.

 

update 2018

 

The hydrogen reactor is (soon) available in a modular 5 kW domestic design

Lower investment costs. List price for each hydrogen reactor is € 39,000,00). Registrations, reservations, orders are welcome.

 

 *We reserve the right to make changes in the course of technical development*

 

 

 


box3

 

 

 

 

Our VIS Group business partners possess many years of 

experience with hydrogen electrolysers and the expertise

required to put this technology into practice.

 

 

 

 

Our most important task is: to reduce emissions of CO2

 

The motivation for our unwavering commitment is climate change and the far-reaching consequences it has for the environment and humanity. The European Union has set a target of a twenty percent reduction in CO2 emissions within the bloc by 2020. As a company and service provider with an awareness of its environmental and social responsibilities, the VIS Group is eager to contribute actively to this reduction.

 

Support for climate and environmental protection

 

The environmental challenges that we face today include progressive deforestation due to logging and forest clearing, desertification, the loss of biological diversity and the unsustainable use of water in agriculture.

The methods by which raw materials are obtained are often destructive, whether legal or illegal, and if steps are not taken, the global race for ever scarcer resources may well only exacerbate existing negative trends.

 

Both climate change itself and the way in which we adapt to it present a major challenge to the world. If we fail to find an adequate response to our environmental problems and the challenge of resources, we run the risk of increased food shortages, conflict over distribution, food riots and a rise in the number of environmental refugees over the coming decades.

 

And yet, environment ministries and institutions are often some of the weakest players. When it comes to protecting the environment, it cannot come down to 'environmental protection or the fight against poverty'.

Given that around 70% of the world's population live by and on the land, environmental protection and the fight against poverty must go hand in hand. If destruction of the land through pollution continues unabated, these populations will lose the very basis of their existence.

 

We are an active team with a range of backgrounds, but with a single aim – to make the world that little bit better.

 

 

Hydrogen electrolysis, the nano electrodes of the future.


This electrode has a thickness of 0.3 mm. The material is woven. The surface is considerably larger than on conventional hole electrodes. In addition, at 27 g per dm² , it is noticeably lightweight. By m², the cost is approx. € 1.50 per dm². The electrode is sturdy, but provides a certain degree of flexibility. A gas separator film for the electrode allows oxygen and hydrogen to be separated from one another. Where previous films cost a lot to produce, we can produce this film for approx. € 0.25 per dm². The film is virtually wear-free and easy to apply.
Electrodes up to 1.25 m x 50 m in size can currently be produced.

The objective of this project is to produce cost-efficient, high-performance electrolytic cells, allowing us to keep the costs well below those of previous plants. The size and weight can also be revolutionised.

 

The electrode pictured here has been enlarged considerably. The three-dimensional structure is clearly visible.

 

Various constructions are possible, please find an example from our development repertoire enclosed. Oxygen is reliably separated from hydrogen.

This construction is highly efficient, with the gas separator film integrated into the partition wall of the individual cell walls. This helps to ensure a heterogeneous flow through the cell and prevent electrolyte deposits and the accumulation of unwanted matter (such as potassium carbonate).

Efficient control of the temperature of the cell, comparable to a heating system, is also ensured, thus guaranteeing that the cell functions at an optimum level continuously.

From a financial perspective, this cell will be of great interest in large-scale production given the low cost of producing at volume.

 

 

The housing of the prototype is produced from POM. In series production it will be produced from PP.

The voltage of each individual cell is approx. 1.5 V, meaning that 12 V will be required for 8 cells and 24 V for 16 cells and so on.

The cell will soon be available as an assembly kit. 

 

The hydrogen electrolytic cell of the future

 

*We reserve the right to make changes in the course of technical development*

  

 

 

POWER PLANT                                    Energy storage and nano silicon dioxide

 

 

 

Economic efficiency thanks to dual use

Entirely free from fossil fuels

Energy storage efficiency greater than 38%

Produces electricity and nano silicon dioxide

 

 

E N E R G Y S T O R A G E   A N D   N A N O  S I L I C O N D I O X I D E

 

TWO IN ONE

 

Silicon, like coal or gas, harbours energy. The new method can exploit this source of energy, without loss, and at the same time produce valuable nano silicon dioxide.

 

Unlimited amounts of silicon can be produced from just sand and energy.

 

Many places have the luxury of more than enough electrical energy, but unfortunately not always when it is needed, and the expansion of wind and solar energy technology will only exacerbate the problem of storing energy. The power plant developed by our partners presents a solution to this problem, by using excess electricity for the continuous production of silicon, thus making energy unlimited and 'stockpiling' it for later use. Silicon

offers the advantages of ease of storage, transportation and use.

 

The power plant is supplied with silicon as its source of energy, which produces electrical energy as it burns. The power plant is capable of feeding electricity into the grid at very short notice, similar to a gas turbine plant.

 

At the same time, the plant produces valuable nano silicon dioxide. The added value is both in the electrical energy and the production of nano silicon dioxide.

 

 

The method has a very high level of efficiency

• There are no waste products

• The energy can be stored for as long as needed

• There are no concerns about the storage of hydrogen (which can be problematic)

• It is freely scalable

• The raw materials are available worldwide and in unlimited quantities

• There is 100% independence from fossil fuels

• It offers a political solution to CO2 problems

• It offers economic efficiency thanks to dual use

 

 

Estimate of profitability

 

The plant can be scaled accordingly, and even small block power plants are possible. The following is one potential scale as an example. This plant is capable of producing 760 standard m³ of hydrogen per hour, in addition to processing a total of 3,888 tonnes of silicon per year.

 

Solutions for energy storage and production of nano silicon dioxide. 
2 raw products enable a very high level of efficiency.

One plant produces 760 standard m³ of H2 per hour, 360 days a year.

SiOgenerator

SiO2  production per year based on a yield of € 1.50 per kg of nano Sol SiO2

7,776 t SiO2, corresponds to € 11,640,000

Hydrogen production per year/MW calorific value (yield of € 0.04/kW)

21,970,080 kW, corresponds to  878,000

Electricity per year MW

864 kW (€ 34,560) plant energy costs

Investment in plant, annual depreciation (10 years)

Investment € 11,400,000 of which

1/10 = € 1,140,000 excluding maintenance and repair

Si cost (€ 0.60-1.50 per kg)

3,888,000 kg Si at € 1.00 = € 3,888,000

Electrolyte cost per year

50 g per kW H= 180,000 kg at € 4.00 = € 720,000

Misc. operating costs

10% of investment in plant (primarily feed pumps) = € 11,400,000, over 10 years = € 1,140,000 per year

Annual yield incl. depreciation and maintenance and repair

€ 5,619,440

 

Chemical description of energy recovery

 

Input

Output

Water with silicon

H2

36 g

Si 

28 g

SiO2 + 

60 g

H+

4 g

Energy

 

Technical details

 

Energy storage

 

The entire plant can operate hydrogen production at temperatures not exceeding 100°C and a pressure of approx. 0.1 bar.

 

There are no waste products.

 

One kilogramme of silicon can produce 5.6 kWh of hydrogen.

 

The energetic efficiency of the plant is dependent on the energy that is required to produce one kilogramme of silicon. The guaranteed value is 14 kWh/kg silicon, giving an efficiency level of 38%. Other methods range from 12 to 8 kWh/kg, which gives rise to an efficiency level of up to 67%.

 

The system can ramp up with extreme speed, and increase hydrogen production. The resulting hydrogen is not stored, rather processed and converted into electricity immediately, which alleviates concerns about its storage (which can be problematic).

 

Nano silicon dioxide

 

One kilogramme of silicon can produce approx. two kilogrammes of nano silicon dioxide with a particle size of 20–145 nanometres. Nano silicon dioxide is a highly sought-after material in the construction industry, and new production methods for cement and porcelain are likely to increase demand still further.

 

This is who we are and what we can offer

 

VIS Group business partners have been working since 2005 on the development of new and innovative methods of energy production. Nanotechnology and inorganic materials are our key strengths.

Our goal is to develop products with unique capabilities that are in line with the demands of the market.

 

Take advantage of our expertise, we would be happy to give you our support.

 

 

 

 When it comes to the environment, only the best will do

 

Our philosophy is: "to approach the future with an awareness for the environment"

 

Energy matters: We flick the switch and the light comes on, the oven heats up, the house heats up and machines do their work. Energy, heat and drinking water are some of the comforts of modern life. Recent decades have seen humanity reach a high level of consumption, whilst often neglecting the impact its actions have on the environment. We shall make full use of our knowledge to ensure that these valuable commodities are preserved for future generations to enjoy. The VIS Group is a modern company with a commitment to meeting the demands of the environmentally aware and to devising effective strategies to support environmentally-conscious lifestyles.

 

The future of energy production lies in hydrogen technology

 

What do we know about hydrogen?

Everyone has heard of the chemical element hydrogen (H), represented in atomic form by the symbol H2 (hydrogenium, Latin for water producing). Hydro is from the Greek for water and genos for producing. Hydrogen was discovered in 1766 and recognised and named in 1787 by the renowned French chemist Antoine Lavoisier.

 

Characteristics:

Hydrogen has a single proton and a single electron, making it the lightest of all chemical elements. It is a combustible, colourless, odourless gas with a mass 14 times lighter than air (density 0.0899 kg/dm3). It turns to a liquid at -253°C, whereupon it weighs 71 g/litre. A single litre of hydrogen contains as much energy as around 2 kg of natural gas or 2.8 kg of petrol. In terms of volume, the energy density of liquid hydrogen is just one third of that of natural gas and one quarter of that of petrol. Compressed hydrogen (at 700 bar) has around three quarters the energy density of liquid hydrogen.

 

Interesting data on hydrogen:

 

 

  • Vapour pressure 209 kPa at 23 K

  • Sound velocity 1,270 m/s at 298 K

  • Specific heat capacity 14,304 J/(kg- K)

  • Thermal conductivity 0.1815 W/(m- K)

  • Energy density per m³ (gas) 2.98 kWh/m³

  • Energy density per kg (liquid) 33.3 kWh/kg

 

Occurrence:

H2 is the most abundant element. A large number of compounds are compounds with hydrogen. It occurs primarily in the form of water, but also in many living organisms, in minerals, in natural gas and in crude oil.

 

Compounds:

H2 can form compounds with almost every other chemical element, for example in water, as hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and in acids. When it forms a compound with another element, H2 either loses or gains an electron. H2 compounds are referred to as hydrides, i.e. hydrogen compounds with one or more chemical elements. The compound partner can also be a metal.

 

Production:

Hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, unlike coal, natural gas and crude oil, and is produced from multiple sources, in a similar way to electricity. However, in contrast to electricity, H2 can be stored and transported with ease.

 

The following methods of hydrogen production can be distinguished:

 

 

  • Electrolysis

  • Production from natural gas

  • Gasification of biomass

 

There are a number of other 'sources' for hydrogen that may be used for the production of H2, including the by-products of the chemical industry, which until now could only be utilised in a thermic manner, biogas, sewage gas, landfill gas and methanol.

 

There is virtually no need for concern!

 

Precautions:

Hydrogen is highly combustible, and mixed with air produces a detonating gas. Hydrogen also reacts with other elements, but there is no need for concern. The use of hydrogen is as safe, if not safer, than the use of petrol or natural gas. And remember that the city gas once used in Germany and elsewhere was composed largely of hydrogen. It was gradually replaced by natural gas.

 

Environmental compatibility:

Hydrogen is a low-risk, ecologically-friendly means of transporting energy. Leaks, i.e. the unavoidable losses from pipes, are hazard-free as the escaping H2 is of no harm to the environment.

It is simply released into the atmosphere.

 

Hydrogen as a (new) source of energy

 

Everyone is familiar with hydrogen as an element, but not everyone is aware of its potential as a source of energy. Hydrogen will get people talking, and maybe sooner than we think. The world expects a peaceful revolution – the hydrogen revolution.

The world, which seems in a constant state of conflict and turmoil, may finally be able to breathe again, and perhaps very soon.

 

The benefits of hydrogen as a source of energy can hardly be believed:

 

 

  • Hydrogen is the lightest and the most abundant element

  • Hydrogen is inexhaustible

  • Hydrogen's only by-products are pure water and heat

 

How would hydrogen technology work?

 

Principle:

The first step is the production of hydrogen, which would (initially) serve as a source of energy, such as in motor vehicles. This would be a major step, which would see the consumption of fuel from oil fall significantly.

This would be followed by other consumers of oil such as heating systems and CHPs. There are no consumers for which hydrogen technology would ultimately be off limits.

 

Everything points towards hydrogen

 

Until now, the energy industry has relied largely on fossil fuels, with crude oil being the most important, in spite of conservative estimates which suggest that reserves will be virtually exhausted within 40 years. It's a very uncertain business, and one that must consider what would ultimately happen if ever shorter delivery times caused oil prices to rise to astronomical levels.

 

Alternative sources of energy, including wind and solar power, have not yet proved a suitable replacement for crude oil.

 

Question:

What about the 'dirty fossil fuels', the oil sands, which are so far largely untouched, such as in Canada? They certainly won't be able to salvage the situation, especially when you consider that their use would only intensify global warming. We would not be able to base our energy supply on them. One thing is clear – the next energy crisis is just around the corner, and the developing world will suffer greatly. Hydrogen could be the answer!

 

Our assertion:

 

 

  • Hydrogen can help the world to reduce its reliance on oil extracted from the Persian Gulf, one of the most unstable and unpredictable regions on the planet. Oil wars would become a thing of the past.

  • In addition, emissions of carbon dioxide would be reduced dramatically, and concerns about global warming would abate.

  • Given the universal abundance of hydrogen, we would no longer need to worry about the imbalance between countries with and without energy reserves. Poverty one problem less.

 

 

The third industrial revolution?

 

It is conceivable, that the use of hydrogen could yield development similar to that brought about by the use of steam power and coal in the 19th century, the introduction of the combustion engine and the advances in communications technology over the last 50 years. We haven't yet got around the problem of sustainability. To many it will seem something of a vision, but without visions, there would be no future.

 

The EU has ambitious plans, and although its current recommendation is to continue to recover hydrogen from fossil fuels, its long-term objective is to increase the use of renewable sources for hydrogen production. Once thing is certain, the EU has pledged its commitment to the hydrogen era.

 

Summary:

We now have the opportunity to engineer wholly new energy structures, and in the history of technology, opportunities like this are rare. We have been gifted one of these rare opportunities, to use hydrogen, the matter of which our sun and the stars are composed, for human purposes – so we have good reason to be excited!

 

Hydrogen, energy for the 21st century

 

Challenges and opportunities. Only those who break new ground today achieve progress tomorrow.

Hydrogen can offer scope for a whole range of applications.

The last twenty years have seen significant investment in the research of hydrogen, and the results have shown that hydrogen is the most promising source of energy for the future. In addition, in terms of safety, hydrogen also offers good manageability. A lot will depend on how we capitalise on the opportunities that this source of energy presents.

 

Much of what once seemed like a utopia is now a reality. At the beginning of the previous century, one could not imagine that man would one day set foot on the moon. A more recent example of a vision that few thought possible is the rapid advancement of the internet, which went from idea to reality in just a few years. The use of hydrogen as a source of energy was long thought impossible, even dangerous, but researchers' thirst for knowledge combined with the efforts of scientists and the commitment of forward-thinking companies has seen the idea pursued.

 

Summary:

The engineers at our VIS Group business partners have been working tirelessly for many years on efficient and environmentally-friendly solutions for the production of hydrogen. The development of sustainable concepts for economic application has formed an additional sphere of activity. We will endeavour to work together to use our technological expertise to establish this vital source of energy around the world.

 

 

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